The building and related devices should be designed and constructed in such a way as to ensure that in the event of a fire the following requirements (1)
1) load capacity of the structure for the time specified in the regulation,
2) limiting the spread of fire and smoke in the building,
3) limiting the spread of fire to neighboring buildings,
4) the possibility of evacuating people, and taking into account the safety of rescue teams.
One way to meet these requirements is through on-site fire zones
A zone is a space separated in a construction object and a closed volume in which it is assumed that a fire may occur, and in the event of its occurrence, smoke, temperature and fire will not exceed the separated zone, or a zone is a volume to which smoke (other gases) cannot occur, temperature and fire, and at which time should be provided for the safe evacuation of people and property from the burning building, and for rescue groups to act.
Depending on the purpose of the building, the amount of energy stored in it, the height, number of storeys and many other factors, the designed zones have different technical requirements in terms of smoke tightness S, fire resistance EI, strength R.
The boundaries of the zones are made of a special structure: walls or floors, they are to guarantee the integrity of the building structure in the event of a fire. All elements of the building's equipment, such as installations, doors, windows, should have special fire protection. In the case of doors and windows, fire-resistant gaskets as well as fire-resistant foam and fire-resistant compounds are used. For sealing fire penetrations of combustible or metal pipes, fireproof collars, fireproof wraps, fireproof tapes or various types of fireprooft pastes are most often used. Sealing of fire penetrations through walls and floors of fire separation of cables, wires and cable trays is most often done with the use of fireproof coating. Such activities, apart from enabling efficient evacuation of people, are also aimed at limiting the size of material losses resulting from a fire.
Penetration seals of pipes and electrical installations that prevent the penetration of fire, cold and hot smoke, and high temperature through fire divisions are usually called penetration seals or service penetrations. Penetration seals, like walls and floors of fire separation, have fire resistance classes. The most common classes of penetration seals in Poland are:
EI 120 and EI 240 - meaning that the Penetration seal ensures fire tightness and protects against the spread of carbon monoxide and smoke for a period of 120 and 240 minutes, respectively. This is the time to safely evacuate from a burning building.
Penetration seals, i.e. places in the building structure thoroughly sealed with fireproof products, where service penetrations pass through partitions, are marked with special labels in the form of plates or stickers containing information about the type of fire passage, fire-resistant materials used to seal a given penetration seal, fire protection contractor and the date execution of the penetration seal. Both in the case when the penetration seal is a aperture through which one type of pipe or cable passes, and in the case of mixed penetration seals, which consist of many different types of fire-protected installations together (e.g. flammable pipes, insulated, cable trays), the information about each fire crossing is included in the construction documentation.
While making penetration seals, attention should be paid to several aspects, both in terms of the selection of fireproof materials.
Penetration seals must be protected against the spread of fire and temperature from one side of the partition to the other side. The structure of the partition itself, in which the fire break was built, is also important. The structure of the penetration seal should be made in such a way as to allow for subsequent modifications, overhauls and repairs of the installation.
Penetration seals interfere with the structure of walls and ceilings and therefore require appropriate means of passive fire protection. If not properly secured, they may allow the fire to spread. Penetration seals must have the same fire resistance class as the partition in which they are made, and be resistant to fire and high temperature, and the partition at the place of penetration must maintain appropriate fire and temperature tightness.
Penetration seals of pipes - important information when choosing a solution:
Type and material of fire-protected pipes, cables,
Diameter and wall thickness of fire-protected pipes, cables
Material, thickness and class of flammability of insulation on the protected pipe
Type and density of the wall's material
Thickness of wall
Required fire resistance EI of penetration seal
Penetration seals of metal pipes
As a result of a sudden increase in temperature, metal pipes are a conductor of heat and may contribute to the spread of the fire. To avoid the above-mentioned situation, penetrations seals of metal pipes are done in the following way:
Penetration seals of metal pipes without insulation
To make penetration seals of metal pipes without insulation, we use fireproof paste Flame Cabel I Paste. It reacts to temperature by increasing its volume, which creates a thermal insulation on the pipe that prevents penetration through the pipe, high temperature to the other side of the partition. Flame Cabel I Paste is mainly used for insulating and making penetration seals of steel, copper and cast iron pipes, not insulated by walls and floors.
Penetration seals of metal pipes insulated with mineral wool
To make penetration seals of metal pipes insulated with mineral wool, Flame Cabel A Paste is used. It is a one-component ablation paste (enabling temperature reduction through gradual melting and evaporation). Flame Cabel A Paste fire-resistant paste is intended mainly for fire protection of mineral wool used as an insulating cover and as a filling of penetration seals.
Penetration seals of pipes insulated with FEF and PE foams
Penetration seals of pipes insulated with rubber or PE foams can be sealed with MULTITUBE fireproof intumescent tape, which is a polymer tape with an admixture of graphite and other components that make the assembly smooth and flexible. Under the action of high temperature, MULTITUBE fireproof intumescent tape increases its volume by closing the opening together with the flammable pipe or, in the case of non-flammable pipes, by tightening the insulation on which it is wound. MULTITUBE fireproof intumescent tape is installed inside a wall.
Another method of making penetration seals of pipes and cables is the use of CarboCollar CC fireproof collars. It is a fireproof tape closed in an outer sheath made of a single or multi-segment stainless steel sheet. Fireproof collars are placed on the pipe and fastened with expansion anchors bolts to the wall.
Penetration seals of plastic pipes
Plastic pipes, as the name suggests, are not resistant to fire and therefore easily contribute to its spread. To avoid the above-mentioned situation, penetration seals of plastic pipes are made as follows:
Penetration seals of plastic pipes without insulation
An ideal solution for making penetration seals of plastic pipes without insulation through walls and floors is CarboWrap CW fireproof intumescent wrap, which is delivered in the form of a ready product. They consist of one or more layers of intumescent inserts, placed in a closed cover made of PVC foil.
Another way to protect plastic pipes without insulation is the use of previously described MULTITUBE fireproof intumescent tape.
Penetration seals of plastic pipes can also be made with the use of CarboCollar CC fireproof collars.
Penetration seals of cables and cable trays
Penetration seals of cable penetrations, e.g. cables, cable bundles and cable trays, require filling the space between the partition and the cable / cable tray. To make such a penetration seal, mineral wool is used, which must be protected with the Flame Cabel A Paste fire-resistant paste. Cables need to be covered with Flame Cabel Coating. A coating that prevents the cable sheath from melting and burning and spreading the fire.
Penetration seals of single cables and cable bundles
Flame Cabel Coating fireproof coating is also used to protect penetration seals of cables and cable bundles. Flame Cabel Coating can also be applied on mineral wool used as an insulating cover for penetration seals in cable trays. After curing, the fireproof coating adheres very well to the plastic substrates used in the production of cables. An important property of the Flame Cabel Coating is its high flexibility, which ensures durability of the fire protection even for cables subjected to deformation near the penetration seal.